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Philosophical Thought
Reference:

On the Diagnosis and Development of Creativity Based on the Ontology of the Game

Shimelfenig Oleg Vladimirovich

PhD in Physics and Mathematics

Associate professor, Department of Geometry, Chernyshevsky Saratov National Research University

410600, Russia, Saratov region, g. Saratov, ul. Astrakhanskaya, 83, korpus 9, of. 313

shim.ov@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8728.2022.11.39185

EDN:

IRWQOU

Received:

16-11-2022


Published:

26-11-2022


Abstract: The subject of the study is to understand the phenomenon of creativity, and the purpose is to provide recommendations for its diagnosis and development of creative abilities. Creativity is currently one of the most sought-after skills according to the forecasts of analysts of the World Economic Forum. The methodological basis of the research is the theoretical and practical results known in science in the psychology of creativity and the story-game concept of reality. Particular attention is paid to the identification in the works on the definition and diagnosis of creativity of their ontological connection with the story-game paradigm, which also intersects meaningfully with studies on situational semantics. A comparative and critical analysis of the basic concepts in these approaches is carried out. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. When teaching any subject, it is useful to diagnose the type of thinking of the audience, periodically offer various tasks that require little time, but develop analytical and creative thinking at the same time, requiring the use of broad categories, synthetics of perception of the environment and a high level of cognitive flexibility, the ability to understand and form metaphors, free association of meanings, interpretations of any text, picture, phenomenon; that is, in fact, it is teaching a creative and playful attitude to various problems. The story-game approach, both in training and in any field of activity, makes it possible to optimally maintain a balance between following the patterns – the "rules of the games" of nature and society and original, creative behavior.


Keywords:

creativity, thinking, problems, competencies, diagnostics, tests, development, game, plot, scenario

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

 

IntroductionThe problem of studying various aspects of creative thinking is one of the most significant and fundamental for the human attitude to the world and the invention of various ways of interacting with it.

 

In the forecasts of analysts at the World Economic Forum and as a result of a survey of Russian companies conducted from July 27 to August 20, 2021 by the Head Hunter research service, it was found that the most in-demand skills in the next five years will be: the ability to solve complex problems; critical thinking; creativity; people management; coordination skills, interactions; emotional intelligence; judgment and decision-making; cognitive flexibility.

Innovative practice in the field of education shows that the skills listed above are most effectively developed with the help of game methods, of course, specifically adapted for each age and type of activity. These forms of education have the following characteristics: they give a systematic idea of the content of professional knowledge, which in traditionally constructed teaching are "spaced" across different academic disciplines; they bring the situation of the educational process closer to the real conditions of the need for knowledge and their direct application; they model a holistic professional activity with all its structural and functional components, which makes it possible to involve the entire personality of the learner in the process of cognition and gives a cumulative teaching and educational effect.

Game methods have a deep and ancient ontological foundation, which is being revived at a new level of its understanding in alliance with modern science: "Before our eyes, a new paradigm is being formed, in which ... a synthesis of scientific, philosophical and religious thought will be gradually carried out" [1, p. 43]. A variant of such an integral picture of the world is the story-game concept of reality [2-5], built and developed by the author on the basis of the oldest image of the world as a Cosmic Game [6-8]. It integrates both millennial spiritual traditions (ancient Indian, Ancient Chinese and ancient philosophy, Sufism) and modern scientific and philosophical research.  Let's briefly consider some of them.

In ancient philosophy, the role of the person playing was considered as the most adequate to his place in the Cosmic Order. For example, Pallas of Alexandria in the IV century argued that all life is a stage and a game in which one must either be able to play, putting aside the serious, or endure pain [2, p. 489]. Heraclitus likened the sage to a child playing, Plato considered man a fictional toy of the gods, believing that following this role was his best destiny [Ibid.].

The idea of the game as the sacred basis of the Platonic state is one of the key points that open the way to a deeper understanding of the late Plato, in whose texts D. S. Kurdybailo [9] discovered more than 100 uses of the concept of the game, collecting them into a system of 12 antinomic pairs distributed over 4 stages: 1) the main properties of the game and its adequacy to a person; 2) art as a game that transforms the human soul; 3) literary and scientific games that promote the transition to higher states; 4) the highest spiritual state, to which asceticism and sacred Mystery Games lead.    

Our domestic thinkers have been interested in the concept of the Divine Game (Lila – Sanskrit., IAST: l?l?) since the end of the XVIII century: Bhagavat-gita (the 6th book of the Mahabharata Bhishmaparva, chapters 23-40) in Russian was first published in 1788, just three years after the publication of its first European translation. The closeness of P. Ya. Chaadaev's teaching about "world consciousness" and A. S. Khomyakov's philosophical anthropology with the Superconsciousness of the Bhagavat-gita is obvious. V. S. Solovyov, who has largely accepted the ideas of A. S. Khomyakov, comes to the same thing in his theory of cognition: the world is animated and, although it is ordered by laws, their source is the soul of the world, Sofia. Solovyov 's ideas have a significant influence on F. Dostoevsky ("knowing love" and "loving knowledge"), F. Tyutchev, A. Fet and L. Tolstoy.

The ontological aspects of the game are studied in the works of modern Russian philosophers: T. A. Apinyan, S. P. Gurin, R. R. Ilyasov, I. N. Kalinauskas [10-13]. T. A. Apinyan notes the involvement of the game in "serious" forms of human activity: politics, state activity, ideology, art, morality, ending with the most ordinary life, spreading S. P. Gurin considers the game as an experiment with being, aimed at clarifying the structure of the world, accompanied by the transformation of both sides: by playing, a person creates something that has not yet happened, accomplishes the truth, interprets what exists and reveals Being. R. R. Ilyasov explores the problem of philosophical conceptualization of the game, the connection of the conscious and unconscious in the game, the game in the context of cognitive activity. The research of I. N. Kalinauskas is connected both with psychology and philosophy, and with the Sufi tradition, focused on those people for whom the main task is to comprehend the world through self-knowledge.

The works of famous scientists psychologists and philosophers S. Grof [14] and K. Wilber [15], as well as the literary and philosophical works of G. Hesse [16] are even closer to the proposed interpretation of the theme of the game as a universal universal. S. Grof studies the structure of the unconscious, altered states of consciousness, and, most importantly, considers the game as the embodiment of the cosmic creative principle, K. Wilber in his works develops the idea that the entire universe has a spiritual character, and the phenomenal world of physics is an external manifestation of subtle reality, which as a whole is a spiritual hierarchy – from atoms to the Creative Principle of the Universe, the essence of human life is to ascend these steps of internal states G. Hesse in his works combines the spiritual ideas of the East and the West, concluding that times are passing, and the wisdom of all peoples, ultimately, remains the same.

 The subject of this study is to understand the phenomenon of creativity from the perspective of the story-game paradigm, and the goal is practical recommendations for the diagnosis and development of creative abilities.

The methodological basis of the research is the theoretical and practical results known in science in the psychology of creativity and the story-game concept of reality, which combines modern systemic and transdisciplinary approaches with the oldest picture of the world in the form of a Cosmic Game of the Creative Principle of the Universe, manifesting itself through a multitude of individual "players" of different psychophysical levels, scale and life span.

 

Is the idea of the Creative Beginning of the Universe compatiblewith modern science and philosophy?

Many generations of scientists have grown up in an atmosphere of a materialistic understanding of reality, and some colleagues consider theistic models of the universe (in particular, the one proposed by the author) to be incompatible with science.

 

Is it so? Let's make sure that this is not the case, especially in the context of the topic of creativity, since well-known thinkers and scientists, including our contemporaries, have a different reasoned point of view on this issue.  The claims of the materialist paradigm for liberation from mythological consciousness, for the "objectivity" of knowledge, for the rigor and unambiguity of scientific concepts, for the transparency of thinking are argumentatively problematized by them.

 We can start with the results of the work of the philosophers of Tomsk University [17], who note that the history of Western culture is traditionally presented as a progressive process of mind emancipation or demythologization, as the formation of a theoretical way of understanding the world – analytical, reflexive liberation from dogmas and prejudices. However, modernity has made significant adjustments to this kind of reading of the history of the West – already starting with Nietzsche, and throughout the XX century in culture and philosophy, the "demythologization of demythologization" is gaining strength, as J. R.R. Tolkien called this trend. Vattimo, that is, such an understanding of history in which demythologization itself appears as a myth [18, p. 48]. Even earlier it was noticed by the Russian philosophers N. A. Berdyaev and I. A. Ilyin. "The most rational people live by myths. Rationalism itself is one of the myths. Rational abstraction easily turns into a myth. For example, Marxism is saturated with abstractions turned into myths. Human consciousness is mobile, it narrows or expands, it concentrates on one thing or dissipates. Average-normal consciousness is one of the abstractions. The reason of rationalism is one of the myths. The alleged heroism and fearlessness of renouncing all faith in the higher, spiritual, divine world, from all consolations is also one of the myths of our time, one of self-consolation. Man is a being unconsciously cunning and not quite "normal", and he easily deceives himself and others, most of all himself. The creation of a special worldview, often an illusory worldview, depending on the orientation of consciousness, has a pragmatic character, which knowledge of true reality does not have" [19, p. 15]. And Ilyin I. A. in his work [20, pp. 107-108] convincingly shows that every person is inevitably a believer, but not always aware of what he believes in.

The struggle against myth, which characterizes classical, demythologizing rationality, is seen as a struggle against prejudices, idols of cognition, for the construction of an undistorted, unbiased ontology as a "way of being meaning", as a struggle against all kinds of deformations of the reference, a priori comprehension of being by pure reason, as an instance of truth, evidence, clarity and self-understanding.   The basis of this is the non–problematized belief in the possibility of subjectivity to rise to a single metaposition – to Universality, no matter how the latter is defined  according to the content. The crisis of the non-classical ideal of self-transparent subjectivity, now interpreted as the "ideologeme of Eurocentrism", also leads to a revision of traditional ideas about a single and unique history, about the foundation of a genuine, undistorted meaning of being, which obviously brings such a post-classical approach to the plot-game polypositional picture of the world [2-5], from which, obviously, the negation follows metaphysical claims to the possession of the truth, one for everyone, and the debunking of the ideals of self–transparency of the subject.

These unnoticed naturalizations can be considered in the perspective of the mythological and ideological aspects of any discourse. A new turn of the topic is the awareness of the inevitability of deformations introduced by mythology and ideology into the bowels of any ontology, and the inability to get rid of these deformations makes us comprehend the measure and proportionality of the identical and the other-to ourselves, the boundaries and the transforming potential of reflexive, analytical thinking, leading a continuous dialogue-duel with the poetic and synthesizing mind of myth. But a materialist does not bother himself with such a truly reflexive dialogue–duel with his own myths, and this is quite natural for almost any researcher - "you can't even see a log in your eye," therefore, it is in this most fundamental matter – the discovery of the power of little-realized myths – that we can help each other, as well as all kinds of participants in ideological dialogues with real opponents, which are reflected, for example, in the works of the author [2, 21, etc.].

The deep connection of scientific concepts with mythological representations was investigated by famous thinkers of the XX century . In the work "Dialectics of Myth" Losev A. F. comes to the conclusion that "no matter how one treats mythology, any criticism of it is always only a sermon of a different, new mythology" [22, p. 162]. Modern researcher of this problem A. Kosarev [23] shows that even the mathematical form of scientific abstractions does not lose its connection with mythology completely – where the chain of evidence breaks, myth begins there.

Yu. M. Duplinskaya considers one of the most fundamental myths of rational thinking of the New European culture – the denial of the Higher Mind [24, p. 69], which, in essence, contradicts all the pathos and goals of natural science – to discover patterns that simply have nowhere to go in spiritless matter. Many scientists simply do not reflect on the absurdity of this situation and therefore, naturally, there are no "answers to seemingly the most elementary questions: what is energy, electron, attraction? Who put the genetic program into the primordial cell?".  

 So science, despite all the assurances of its adherents and their constant struggle with mythology, never breaks with it and cannot break with it, because it cannot be outside of culture. It follows from this that every "knowledge" about nature, even the most accurate, is based on its own religious faith [25, p. 570].  

   Therefore, the conclusion of the Russian philosopher S. L. Frank is also fair: "All philosophy that has realized itself and its subject, starting from the ancient Greek sages Heraclitus, Socrates and Plato and ending with the latest philosophy of our days, is religious philosophy, the search and reasonable justification of the spiritual foundations of being" [26, p. 10]. As if continuing this theme, the modern scientist and thinker V. V. Nalimov comes to the conclusion that philosophy will not be able to fulfill its mission to comprehend the new worldview, "remaining isolated from serious science, from art, from religion and mystical ideas" [27, p. 92].

Not only philosophers, but outstanding physicists of the last century, Nobel Prize laureates realized the need to create a holistic spiritual, psycho-physical picture of the world:  "It would seem absolutely absurd to Bohr and me if we suddenly forbade ourselves certain problems or ways of reasoning of the former philosophy on the grounds that they are not expressed in precise language. ... nothing prevents me from thinking about old problems again, just as nothing prevents me from resorting to the traditional language of one of the old religions" [28, pp. 323-324]. Another Feynman laureate states: "Newton's picture of the world is as mythical as Ptolemy's, and what we think otherwise is a matter of habit. In fact, what are these "forces" that supposedly act in empty space at a distance, and how are they better than, say, gods taking some periodic actions that allow the world to continue its existence?" [29, p. 476]. And the founder of the Institute of High Energy Physics, rector of Moscow State University (1977-1992), academician A. A. Logunov comes to the conclusion that: "science and religion must find a common language for fruitful interaction for the benefit of mankind" [30, p. 236]; "science can enter religion as an integral part" [30, p. 91, 197], noting the deep religiosity of many outstanding scientists, which has its foundations in the "amazing beauty of the laws of nature", entailing awareness of the "divinity of being" [30, p. 196].

Summing up the results of this section, I will also give the point of view of well-known modern Russian philosophers on the issue of reviving the leading role of spiritual and psychic aspects in the holistic picture of the world at a new turn of the spiral of human culture development.

"The assumption of the existence of a hierarchy of consciousnesses in Space, including those far exceeding the human level, today no longer seems to be the property of various forms of religious and mystical worldview, but is perceived as a completely plausible hypothesis, given the entry of humanity into the era of the anthropocosmic turn associated with the search for brothers in mind in the Universe and the recognition of the cosmic dimension in the activity of the man" [31, p. 289].

"The border between myth and science, science and religion turned out to be much less transparent than it seemed earlier. The myth surprisingly revealed elements of science, and strict science – obvious features of mythology [1, p.375]

"With the departure of the neoliberal teleology of the market and consumption, the last progressive vector of global history that claimed universality, the last closed utopia of universal salvation, disappears. There is a kind of revenge of topos over chronos. Accordingly, the task of finding other grounds for organizing the "chaos" of modernity and creating other categories of modern philosophical culture that would be not reactive, but projective in nature, would model the discovery and pluriverse projects of the future, and not just passively describe the past or present through outdated and contextually limited concepts becomes urgent. The majority of the philosophical ethos agrees with the fact that the original model of rigid rationalism is outdated and the moment has come in philosophy for the critical coordination of heterogeneous data, bringing heterogeneous methodologies into the system, comprehending and verifying the results obtained, clarifying cross-cutting concepts, substantiating fundamental principles. The problem of productive discourses from the private business of methodologists becomes the essence of the philosophical process of modernity. Since the limitations of the ideological-rationalistic approach do not suit the community, the framework of discourse is being expanded: religious, mystical, mythological, technocratic, etc. teachings, materials of ethnography, psychology, archeology, literary studies, art, etc. – the whole life, activity and experiences of a person are being introduced into philosophy and culture" [32, p. 4] (italics of the author).

The above arguments confirm the scientific validity of the holistic spiritual and psychophysical concept of reality proposed by the author, where philosophical, scientific and religious ideas are organic aspects of this ideological integrity, reflected and expressed in a complex of basic universal, end-to-end categories and a system of principles-postulates of the story-game paradigm [3-5], which is a variant of the answer to the request of time, formulated above in modern studies of domestic and foreign philosophers and scientists.

 

 

Story-game concept of realityas an ontological basis for understanding creativity

The basis of the proposed model of reality is the indefinable to the end, timeless Creative Principle of the Universe, which has no form and therefore creates all things, and is called in different spiritual traditions Brahman, Tao, Absolute Consciousness, Receptacle and Nurse of everything that arises in Plato, etc., recognized "in consistently theistic varieties of objective idealism, the beginning and the end of the world". [31, p. 42].

 

The story-game paradigm is based on the idea that any, somehow organized, parts of reality, elements, are individuals with a dual psycho-physical nature and have subjectivity, that is, they have the ability to show their activity in interaction: "Molecules are structured societies... and so, in all probability, are individual electrons and protons. Crystals are structured societies" [33, p. 42]; "Atoms, i.e. the basic elements of all reality, are living elementary beings, or what has been called monads since Leibniz" [34, p. 30]. Then everything that happens in the World is an intersubjective interaction, that is, a game: "The game begins whenever people (like any other subjects – author's note) somehow try to interact with each other" [35, p. 4]. The concepts of an individual, a game, a plot and a scenario in the plot-game concept have a categorical status and are ontological in nature, since they are the basis of ideas about being.

The manifestation of the world as the formation, the realization of Being occurs exclusively through the interaction of various, including multi-level parts and fragments of the World. And if there were no such interactions in the World, then nothing would happen in it, that is, he himself would simply not exist! Naturally, the question arises, if everything manifested is a "game", then what will be "not a game"? This is "non-existence", in the sense that goes back to the Eastern philosophical traditions, as a source of the fullness of being, as a transcendent indefinable creative Principle of Being, generating a Cosmic total multi-level Game. (See V. S. Stepin's reasoning that "the fundamental categories in both the East and the West are a pair of "being-non-being", but if in the ancient culture non–existence means the absence of being, then in the Chinese tradition a different understanding - non-existence is the source and completeness of being; their interaction forms a constant cycle of transformation of being into non-being. The key value here is the category of emptiness, which is an expression of non-existence, but not as the absence of things, but the place and condition of their generation" [3, p. 31]).

Thus, the concepts of the plot and the game are precisely philosophical, that is, universal, revealed in the context of a holistic, unified existence of the World [2-5]. Any phenomenon is represented through them, so their universality is quite comparable, for example, with the universalism of the category "matter". Just as all reality is "woven" from matter in the substantial picture of the world, so in the presented concept all reality is woven from story-game "matter": "Any activity always goes in the game mode, even when it is not" – for someone else [10, p. 399].

In a number of modern scientific concepts, concepts are introduced that are increasingly close to the plot-game language, for example, in situational semantics, "a situation is a set of some real, possible or impossible states of affairs (states of affairs) that exist jointly or are thought of as joint" [36, p. 148], that is, in fact, a plot grasped or constructed by an individual (a cognitive agent in this concept). Situations are classified by a cognitive agent depending on "the presence in their structure of certain objects, properties and relationships that this agent is able to recognize" [Ibid.]. On the one hand, the authors, in the spirit of the story-game paradigm, label the situation (plot) to those who perceive it, rejecting the objectivist interpretation of "the question of whether any entity exists "by itself", beyond the possibility of being perceived by any cognitive agent, and if so, then does this being have any particular structure (in other words, the question of "God's point of view") goes beyond situational semantics and is not considered in it" [37, p. 239]. And, on the other hand, it is said about "the almost complete inability of situational semantics to distinguish the world itself from its description" [36, p. 149], which already implies a kind of obsolescent objectivist position, which raises the following objections.

Indeed, isn't the "description of the world" ("scenario" in a broad sense, taking into account its procedural nature) part of the "world itself", if we consider the world as a spiritual and psychophysical whole? Moreover, it is a very significant part of a single reality, since it decisively affects its constantly occurring formation through attempts by all beings of the Universe (of which it consists) to implement their life scenarios, formed quickly and mostly automatically (in order to survive in the dynamics of events) with the help of templates laid down genetically and new ones formed with the very birth. This process of turning scenarios into physical reality through the interaction of all its co-creators has become one of the Principles-Postulates[2, 3] of the plot-game paradigm, called "lacing up the scenario and plot flows through each individual and co-organizing them into a holistic Plot–scenario flow of the Universe - into a single Communal Reality of the Cosmic Game."

From the standpoint of the story-game paradigm, the concepts of "fact" and "truth" are also being rethought, which situational semantics has ceased to consider as "some abstractions like language sentences" and began to immerse in "a specific situation with specific space-time frames and other parameters" [36, p. 151], that is, according to in essence, approaching the concept of a plot perceived by a specific individual in a certain setting.

In this way, story-game modeling organically connects with the new global human activity and is increasingly used in scientific and philosophical research, contributing to a more creative assimilation of the rich heritage of practical philosophy, including Eastern philosophy, and a deeper understanding of the unity of nature, revealing new essential connections between various fields of knowledge.

In conclusion of this section, I will give two examples from my own life in science, vividly demonstrating the direct connection of personally perceived game ontology with creativity. Since 1970, the author has attended G. P. Shchedrovitsky's methodological seminars, made presentations and somehow introduced him to his deposited work [38]. After reading it, he invites me to take part in his organizational activity games that transform the worldview of huge collectives of enterprises, educational institutions and representatives of entire industries and culture. At one of these events, a convinced materialist who denies the possibility of the existence of any spiritual entities entered into a discussion with him, to which Georgy Petrovich replied that then he would be the one with whom he identifies himself: "If you consider yourself descended from a tree, then you will be a tree!".

Another episode occurred in 1986, when Professor A. T. Shumilin, a leading specialist in the theory of cognition and the theory of creativity, head of the Department of Philosophy of Simferopol University invited me (with a team of Saratov specialists of various profiles developing a new innovative technology of Problem-business games [39, 40, 2, pp. 399-423] to solve very relevant those were the times of socio-economic problems of many organizations) become a co-leader with him of the VI All-Union seminar on creativity in the form of a Problem-business game "Potential". This event took place at Simferopol University in early September 1986. Among the many invited famous scientists and philosophers was a psychologist and psychotherapist of world renown Vladimir Leonidovich Raikov – the author of the discovery of posthypnotic inertia. He introduced into science new theoretical concepts of understanding hypnosis and new practical possibilities of its application; he believed that hypnosis is one of the forms of unconscious experience of creativity. He also developed a special method of auto-suggestion for the mobilization of the psyche, which a person can use for his self-development, creative activity and treatment. His first performance  he began by asking the participants: "Who among you believes that he is deprived of any ability to draw?". More than half of the audience raised their hands. - "Who is ready to go to the board?"  A young participant of the seminar came out. – "Please take the chalk and try to depict a flower!". The subject clumsily depicted something terrible. "Good!" said Raikov, looking straight into the eyes of the young man sharply and imperiously said, "You are Repin! Draw a flower!". A second, and the newly-born artist, transformed before his eyes, confidently and with a flourish made an expressive drawing, signing "I.  Repin". "And now look at what you have done!" – Raikov exclaimed. No one managed to convince the young scientist that he was the author of the second drawing. Then Raikov demonstrated the amazing possibilities of his technology, revealing the creative potential of those present.

To summarize: the realization that you are not from a "tree", but are the embodiment of the Creative Principle of the Universe, is a decisive factor of creativity and self–determination in the flow of all the events of your own life.

 

Definition and diagnostics of creativityfrom the plot-game position

The concept of creativity (from the Latin creatio – creation) was introduced by the American psychologist E. P. Torrens (1960-ies) in the process of further developing the concept of convergent and divergent thinking of the President of the American Psychological Association D. P. Guilford [41, 42].

 

Under convergent ("convergent") thinking is the search for a single solution to a problem using linear, logical (discursive) thinking. This type of thinking is associated with the IQ test of the level of intelligence and the classical method of teaching. Under divergent ("divergent") thinking is understood as a "fan-shaped" search in all directions, often leading to original solutions, aimed at finding innovative ways, unconventional proposals, which was used by the author of the idea to create tests of creative abilities, which took into account both the number of ideas formulated by the subject and the degree of their rarity in comparison with the answers of other subjects.

It was this aspect that became the theme of Torrence's work [43] on the creation of tests to determine the creative abilities of children.  At the first stage, convergent thinking (according to Guilford) was trained, where the subject was offered verbal tasks for solving anagrams, where he had to identify the only correct hypothesis and formulate a rule leading to solving the problem. At the next stage, the subject was offered pictures where he described all the probable and improbable circumstances that led to the situation depicted in the picture and predicted its possible consequences. Then the subject was offered various items and asked to list possible ways to use them. This approach to the training of abilities allows you to free a person from the framework set from the outside, and he begins to think creatively and outside the box, in fact, playing with a variety of plot forms. Torrence associates creativity with the ability to sharpen the perception of shortcomings, gaps in knowledge, disharmony, etc. He believes that the creative act is divided into the perception of a problem, the search for a solution, the emergence and formulation of hypotheses, the verification of hypotheses, their modification and finding the result, while the ideal test should check the course of all these operations with the help of twelve tests grouped into three series: verbal, visual and sound, diagnosing verbal creative thinking, respectively, visual creative thinking and verbal-sound creative thinking.

St. Petersburg psychologist and teacher Elena E. Tunik [44] has developed a set of tests for the study of creative thinking, using a modification of the Guilford and Torrence tests, also relying on a large array of domestic and foreign studies on the problems of abilities, giftedness, creative thinking.

Various authors have identified the following specific abilities in creative subjects: the use of broad categories, the synthetics of perception of the environment and a high level of cognitive flexibility. In fact, it is the ability to understand and form metaphors, the free association of meanings, interpretations of any text, picture, phenomenon, which turns out to be a manifestation of a playful attitude to any reality. An interesting feature of a creative personality is also the ability to produce creative products that are stable over time, reveal new aspects of the subject under consideration, and combine simplicity and complexity, which is due to a contradictory combination of cognitive and emotional qualities. This means that such an individual is close to liberation from the uncontrolled power over his thinking of the eighth template of the nine identified by the author [45, p. 97]: "8. The invisibility of the duality of opposites – what Chuang Tzu noticed in the IV century BC: who wants to have right without wrong, order without chaos, does not understand the principles of heaven and earth, he does not know how things are related to each other, that is, that all antagonists "grow" from a common root – the game beaner. "We can say that the process connects its sides precisely because it opposes them; or that it opposes them only because it connects them" [46, p. 22]. In fact, S. L. Frank comes to similar ideas [47, p. 488], arguing that "true synthesis" is unattainable on the path of "pure reason", but only in the form of "rationally inexpressible soaring over opposites", which is by no means a simple oscillatory movement between mutually contradictory extremes. The universe is an active expression of various antagonistic poles: "All opposites enter as elements into the nature of things and remain there forever" [33, p. 412]."

In Guilford, this quality is reflected in three main characteristics of a creative personality: originality (which is the ability to offer his own, unusual way of thinking), sensitivity and integration. The latter is interpreted as the ability to simultaneously take into account and/or combine several opposing conditions, prerequisites or principles, which in the game representation of reality turns into a confrontation of antagonists, driving the development of events.

Another feature of creative individuals is that they often identify themselves with other personalities and easily change roles, which obviously means that they are ready for a story-game perception of the world – from the perspective of an actor, screenwriter, director.

Psychologists have also found that highly intelligent children were equal to the achievements, standards, norms of adults, and highly creative preferred special achievements that differ from the generally accepted ones, showing conflict, rebellion, rebelliousness. Creative children love fantasy and humor, showing it in the answers when exploring an unstructured situation, prefer to go in new directions.

 

ConclusionSummarizing this brief selective excursion on the topic of creativity from a plot-game position, we can conclude that, both in training and in any productive activity, it is necessary to maintain a balance between following the patterns – the "rules of the games" of nature and society, on the one hand, and original, creative behavior on the other.

 

At the same time, it is very important that if students perceive the main provisions of the plot-game worldview paradigm, then the search for original solutions to a particular problem becomes more effective, since a new look, a look from the outside and even from different sides, becomes not just a formal intellectual technique, even if well-learned, but an intrinsic, the immanent driving force of thought.

The author, during his training sessions and lectures, sets himself the goal not so much of broadcasting the material according to the program within the framework laid down in it, as involving students in the process of giving birth to thoughts on any topic – from mathematics to philosophy and practical problems of life. It is better not to rush to demonstrate your knowledge, for example, the proof of a theorem, but to bring students to his own discoveries, giving the opportunity to the one who found the right sequence of arguments to continue this part of the lecture at the blackboard himself. A good mood and a lesson in such a harmonious balance of logic and spontaneity of thinking are given by the plots of tasks from the author's works [48, 49], which can be used in the course of classes in any discipline as a respite in the form of an exciting creativity training with simultaneous mastering of analytical thinking methods. The introduction of listeners into a creative state is also helped by the lecturer's own relaxed behavior and humor appropriate to a particular situation, which is one of the typical aspects of creativity. 

 

 

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First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The reviewed article examines the problem of creativity, which is relevant for modern pedagogy and scientific creativity. The author uses a wide range of diverse sources in his work to formulate a single comprehensive view of this complex problem. The advantage of the article can also be considered that the author, not limited to theoretical sources, shares his own experience of developing students' creativity in the process of teaching. However, a number of aspects of the reviewed article require criticism and, accordingly, revision. Thus, the volume of the text is already insufficient, without a list of references it is only 0.4 a.l.; if we take into account the complexity and complexity of the topic chosen by the author, it is impossible to doubt that the article will only benefit from the concretization of its main provisions. In addition, the "technical condition" of the text also causes critical remarks: punctuation errors occur ("integrates like millennial spiritual traditions...", – an extra comma; "concepts are introduced that are increasingly close to the plot-game language", – the necessary comma is missing; "in the proposed model of reality, the indefinable is the basis of everything to the end...", – an extra dash, etc.); stylistic errors ("battery of tests", "non-conformal", "on the topic of creativity from a plot-game position", "broadcasting material on the program from now to now", "involving everyone in the process...", etc.), spelling errors (for example, in the expression ""true synthesis" is not achievable on the way..." "not-" should be written together). Of course, all such errors must be corrected before the publication of the article in the journal. It is also impossible not to note that the enumeration of spiritual and intellectual traditions, names of thinkers and researchers is given at the beginning of the article in the form of some kind of "undifferentiated unity", such "lists" do not help the reader to see the connections of the material presented with the content of the works of predecessors and contemporaries, they should either be "deciphered" (previously, of course, shortened), or simply remove it if, in the opinion of the author, taking into account these connections is not so essential for understanding the specific content of the article. Further, fragments should be removed from the text in which, as far as can be understood, the author shows deep respect for ancient religious-mythological or religious-philosophical traditions (for example, "... the timeless Creative Principle of the Universe ...", etc.); of course, we are not talking about encroaching on the author's personally meaningful worldview, which It may also contain religious components, but they can hardly be considered as a source of generally valid scientific ideas, and it is precisely such content that should be reflected in scientific publications. There are also clearly controversial statements that should either be removed or clarified, for example: "Teachers prefer children with high general intelligence and low creativity" (no, it's only bad teachers who prefer such students!), or: "Teachers and classmates often characterize creative children this way: "They put forward wild and stupid ideas and they behave aggressively"" (the same thing!). It should be noted that the article has scientific and scientific-pedagogical content, but one needs both substantial refinement (specification of the main provisions) and the elimination of these and similar errors. I recommend sending the article for revision.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

This work is devoted to a rather interesting and relevant topic - game ontology, which has been studied for a long time, but from different points of view and in different contextual circumstances! The problem of the game is a relatively new topic for philosophical analysis, although propaedeutically its introduction to the range of philosophical issues was prepared by the achievements of private sciences, primarily psychology and pedagogy, which show a steady interest in this problem. If Western philosophy, since the middle of the XX century, has been actively exploring the specifics and essence of gaming processes and offers some solutions to the issues of the nature, essence and laws of the existence of the game, then in Russian philosophical science the understanding of the "game" is just beginning. This indicates the heuristic significance and relevance of the chosen topic. The ontological discourse proposed in this work allows us to systematize and summarize the available data: theoretical and existential-practical ideas about the game, and determine its place in the structure of human reality. The need for such a study is prescribed not only by the theoretical, but also by the spiritual and practical situation of our time, characterized by the intensification of the penetration of game elements into all spheres of existence, the unusual popularity and wide spread of various kinds of game psycho-cultural practices, the general increase in the role of game phenomena in the socio-cultural reality of today. This situation determines the position of many researchers, domestic and foreign, who interpret the game as a total reality, which leads to attempts to interpret all human existence in terms of the game. The ideological danger and inadequacy of such a view of the game is extremely relevant to this study, which explicates the game as an ontological phenomenon in the context of morality, or analyzes the existential layers of interaction between Homo Ludens and Homo Morales. The author proceeds from highlighting the following key topics: 1. Is the idea of the Creative Principle of the universe compatible with modern science and philosophy? 2. The story-game concept of reality as an ontological basis for understanding creativity. 3. Definition and diagnosis of creativity from the plot-game position. Specific developments of the psychological and pedagogical plan, analyzing the role of the game in the process of upbringing and education, are widely presented in modern research. This body of literature represents a significant potential for methodological generalizations and contains a huge empirical material of descriptions and observations that is of interest to a researcher of the game in a conceptual aspect. Here we can note the works of E.V. Gusevsky, A. Koroleva, N.V. Volina, E.I. Pronina, S.A. Shmakov and others. The technological nature of the game as a moment of its socio-cultural existence in the world of "adults" is reflected in the works of B.A. Raisberg, A.C. Prutchenkov, O.Ya. Stechkin, Krasovsky Yu.D., Yu.G. Bychenko A.I. Rozina, H.A. Kozlov, V.I. Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V. Geronimus, etc. These works are directly or indirectly related to the analysis of various kinds of psychotraining and psychocultural practices close to them. Of particular interest are the works of O.B. Weinstein and S.S. Khoruzhego, which offer a view of the game as an essential interaction in the realities of postmodernity. The general image of the game, revealed during acquaintance with the above-mentioned literature, consists of its empirical manifestations carried out within the objective world and existential moments that allow us to interpret the game as a value. It is in this aspect that this research is carried out, which causes the necessary involvement of entire layers of literature devoted to other philosophical problems that are indirectly in contact with the philosophical aspects of the study of the game. The work is written in a clear language and a good literary style, which facilitates the understanding of the author's position, while attention is paid to both the substantiation of the author's concept and the discussion of the opponents' counterarguments, the appeal to which is also quite interestingly presented. It is worth noting the rich bibliography, which includes both domestic and foreign sources of a wide range of topics. It seems that the work will be of interest to a certain part of the magazine's audience.